JAS Completes Acquisition of Empi Advance ROM
JAS Completes Acquisition of Empi Advance ROM
JAS Receives ABC Accreditation
JAS Receives ABC Accreditation
ASHT Annual Meeting
Come visit us @ Booth 210
ASHT Annual Meeting
Hyatt Regency in Dallas, Texas
September-20-22, 2018
Superior Design.
Better Outcomes.
Better Business Bureau Accredidated Logo

The Compliance Team Logo

American Association for Homecare Logo
The Range Of Motion Specialists

Research and Resources:

Stress relaxation and low-load stretch therapy has been proven clinically effective in numerous peer-reviewed published studies, clinical papers, and scientific presentations.


All items are available upon request. Contact JAS at 800-879-0117 or info@jointactivesystems.com, and specify the full title of each article.


Studies: Shoulder

Hussein AZ, Ibrahim MI, Hellman MA, Donatelli R. Static progressive stretch is effective in treating shoulder adhesive capsulitis: prospective randomized, controlled study with a two-year follow-up. Eur J Physiother. 2015;17(3):138-147.doi:10.3109/21679169.2015.1057863.
Download Summary

Ibrahim MI, Donatelli R, Hellman M, Echternach J J. Efficacy of a static progressive stretch device as an adjunct to physical therapy in treating adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: a prospective, randomized study. Physiotherapy. 2014:100(3):228-234.doi:10.1016/j.physio.2013.08.006.
Download Summary

Donatelli R, Ruivo RM, Thurner M, Ibrahim, MI. New concepts in restoring shoulder elevation in a stiff and painful shoulder patient. Phys Ther Sport. 2014;15:3-14.doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2013.11.001.

Ibrahim MI, Johnson AJ, Pivec R, Issa K, Naziri Q, Kapadia BH, Mont MA. Treatment of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder with a static progressive stretch device: a prospective, randomized study. J Long Term Eff Med Implants. 2012;22(4):281-91.doi:1615/JLongTermEffMedImplants.2013007061.
Download Summary

Johnson AR, McKenzie SA, Ulrich SD, Seyler TM, Issa K, Pivec R, Mont MA. Assessment of static progressive stretch for the treatment of shoulder stiffness: a prospective case series. Long Term Eff Med Implants. 2012;22(4): 293-303.PMID:23662660
Download Summary

Donatelli R, Wilkes JS, Hall W, Cole S. Frozen shoulder encapsulates therapy challenges. BioMechanics. 2006.
Download Summary

Studies: Wrist/Forearm

McGrath MS, Ulrich SD, Bonutti PM, Marker DR, Johanssen HR, Mont MA. Static progressive splinting for restoration of rotational motion of the forearm. J Hand Ther. 2009;22(1):3-8.doi: 10.1197/j.jht.2008.06.005.
Download Summary

Lucado AM, Li Z. Static progressive splinting to improve wrist stiffness after distal radius fracture: a prospective, case series study. Physiother Theory Pract. 2009;25(4):297-309. doi:10.1080/09593980902782389.
Download Summary

Lucado AM, Li Z, Russell GB, Papadonikolakis A, Ruch DS. Changes in impairment and function after static progressive splinting for stiffness after distal radius fracture. J Hand Ther Off J Am Soc Hand Ther. 2008;21(4):319-325. doi:10.1197/j.jht.2008.01.002.
Download Summary

McGrath MS, Ulrich SD, Bonutti PM, Smith JM, Seyler TM, Mont MA. Evaluation of static progressive stretch for the treatment of wrist stiffness. J Hand Surg. 2008;33(9):1498-1504. doi:10.1016/j.jhsa.2008.05.018.
Download Summary

Parent-Weiss NM, King JC. Static progressive forearm rotation contracture management orthosis design: a study of 28 patients: J of Prosthet Orthot. 2006;18(3):63-67.

Grenier M-L, Chinchalkar SJ, Pipicelli JG. Static progressive orthosis for patients with limited radial and/or ulnar deviation: an innovative orthotic design. J Hand Ther Off J Am Soc Hand Ther. 2012;25(4):425-428; quiz 429. doi:10.1016/j.jht.2012.03.005.

Smith DW, Brou KE, Henry MH. Early active rehabilitation for operatively stabilized distal radius fractures. J Hand Ther. 2004;17(1):43-49.PMID: 14770137

Bell SN, Benger D. Management of radioulnar synostosis with mobilization, anconeus interposition, and a forearm rotation assist splint. J Shoulder and Elb Surg Am. 1999;8(6):621-624.PMID: 10633900

Studies: Elbow

Veltman ES, Doornberg JN, Evgendaal D, van den Bekerom MP. Static progressive versus dynamic splinting for posttraumatic elbow stiffness: a systematic review of 232 patients. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2015;135(5):613-7.doi:10.1007/s00402-015-2199-5.

Muller AM, Sadoghi P, Lucase R, Audige L, Delaney R, Klein M, Valderrabano V, Vavken P. Effectiveness of bracing in the treatment of nonosseous restriction of elbow mobility: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 13 studies. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2013;22:146-1152.doi:10.1016/j.jse.2013.04.003.

Lindenhovius ALC, Doornberg JN, Brouwer KM, Jupiter JB, Mudgal CS, Ring D. A prospective randomized controlled trial of dynamic versus static progressive elbow splinting for posttraumatic elbow stiffness. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94(8):694-700. doi:10.2106/JBJS.J.01761.
Download Summary

Schwartz DA. Static progressive orthoses for the upper extremity: a comprehensive literature review. Hand N Y N. 2012;7(1):10-17.doi:10.1007/s11552-011-9380-2.

Bhat AK, Bhaskaranand K, Nair SG. Static progressive stretching using a turnbuckle orthosis for elbow stiffness: a prospective study. J Orthop Surg Hong Kong. 2010;18(1):76-79.

Suksathien R, Suksathien Y. A new static progressive splint for treatment of knee and elbow flexion contractures. J Med Assoc Thail Chotmaihet Thangphaet. 2010;93(7):799-804.

Ulrich SD, Bonutti PM, Seyler TM, Marker DR, Morrey BF, Mont MA. Restoring range of motion via stress relaxation and static progressive stretch in posttraumatic elbow contractures. J Shoulder Elb Surg Am Shoulder Elb Surg Al. 2010;19(2):196-201. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2009.08.007.
Download Summary

Doornberg JN, Ring D, Jupiter JB. Static progressive splinting for posttraumatic elbow stiffness. J Orthop Trauma. 2006;20(6):400-404.
Download Summary

Gelinas JJ, Faber KJ, Patterson SD, King GJ. The effectiveness of turnbuckle splinting for elbow contractures. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2000;82(1):74-8.

Bonutti PM, Windau JE, Ables BA, Miller BG. Static progressive stretch to reestablish elbow range of motion. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1994;(303):128-34.
Download Summary

Green DP, McCoy H. Turnbuckle orthotic correction of elbow-flexion contractures after acute injuries. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1979;61(7):1092-1095.

Everding NG, Maschke SD, Hoyen HA, Evans PJ. Prevention and treatment of elbow stiffness: a 5-year update. J Hand Surg. 2013;38(12):2496-2507; quiz 2507. doi:10.1016/j.jhsa.2013.06.007.

Charalambous CP, Morrey BF. Posttraumatic elbow stiffness. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94(15):1428-1437. doi:10.2106/JBJS.K.00711.

Issack PS, Egol KA. Posttraumatic contracture of the elbow, current management issues. Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases. 2006;63(3 & 4):129-36.

Evans PJ, Nandi S, Maschke S, Hoyen HA, Lawton JN. Prevention and treatment of elbow stiffness. J Hand Surg. 2009;34(4):769-778. doi:10.1016/j.jhsa.2009.02.020.

Kim PD, Grafe MW, Rosenwasser MP. Elbow Stiffness: Etiology, Treatment, and Result. J Am Soc Surgeries Hand. 2005.

Ring D, Jupiter JB. Current concepts review: fracture-dislocation of the elbow: J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1998;80(4):566-580.

Morrey BF. Post traumatic contracture of the elbow: operative treatment, including distraction arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am.1990;72(4):601-618.

Philips B, Strasburg S. Arthroscopic treatment of arthrofibrosis of the elbow joint. Arthroscopy. 1998;14(1):38-44.

Studies: Ankle

Costa CR, McElroy MJ, Johnson AJ, Lamm BM, Mont MA. Use of a static progressive stretch orthosis to treat post-traumatic ankle stiffness. BMC Res Notes. 2012;5:348. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-348.
Download Summary

Sharma NK, Loudon JK. Static progressive stretch brace as a treatment of pain and functional limitations associated with plantar fasciitis, a pilot study. Foot & Ankle Spec. 2010;3(3):117-124.doi: 10.1177/1938640010365183.

Grissom SP, Blanton S. Treatment of upper motorneuron plantarflexion contractures by using an adjustable ankle-foot orthosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82:270-3.PMID: 11239325

Studies: Knee

Kalson NS, Borthwick LA, Mann DA, Deehan DJ, Lewis P, Mann C, Mont MA, Morgan-Jones R, Oussedik S, Williams FM, Toms A, Argenson JN, Bellemans J. Bhave A. Furnes O, Gollwitzer, H, Haddad FS, Hofmann S, Krenn V. International consensus on the definition and classification of fibrosis of the knee joint. Bone Joint J. 2016;98-B(11):1479-1488.

McGinn T, Chughtai M, Bhave A, Ali O, Mudaliar P, Khlopas A, Harwin SF, Mont MA. Innovative multi-modal physical therapy reduces incidence of manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) in Non-obese primary total knee arthroplasty. Surg Technol Int. 2016;10(XXVIII):328-333. PMID: 27608746

Chughtai M, McGinn T, Bhave A, Khan S, Vashist M, Khlopas A, Mont MA. Innovative multimodal physical therapy reduces incidence of repeat manipulation under anesthesia in post-total knee arthroplasty patients who had an initial manipulation under anesthesia. J Knee Surg. 2016;29(8):639-644. DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1592339

McElroy MJ, Johnson AJ, Zywiel MG, Mont MA. Devices for the prevention and treatment of knee stiffness after total knee arthroplasty. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2011;8(1):57-65. doi:10.1586/erd.10.71.

Bonutti PM, Marulanda GA, McGrath MS, Mont MA, Zywiel MG. Static progressive stretch improves range of motion in arthrofibrosis following total knee arthroplasty. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc Off J ESSKA. 2010;18(2):194-199. doi:10.1007/s00167-009-0947-1.
Download Summary

Suksathien R, Suksathien Y. A new static progressive splint for treatment of knee and elbow flexion contractures. J Med Assoc Thail Chotmaihet Thangphaet. 2010;93(7):799-804.PMID: 20649059

Bonutti PM, McGrath MS, Ulrich SD, McKenzie SA, Seyler TM, Mont MA. Static progressive stretch for the treatment of knee stiffness. The Knee. 2008;15(4):272-276. doi:10.1016/j.knee.2008.04.002.
Download Summary

Seyler TM, Marker DR, Bhave A, et al. Functional Problems and Arthrofibrosis Following Total Knee Arthroplasty. J Bone Jt Surg Am. 2007;89(Supplement 3):59-69.PMID: 17908871

Millett PJ, Johnson B, Carlson J, Krishnan S, Steadman JR. Rehabilitation of the arthrofibrotic knee. Am J Orthop Belle Mead NJ. 2003;32(11):531-538.

Jansen CM, Windau JE, Bonutti PM, Brillhart MV. Treatment of a knee contracture using a knee orthosis incorporating stress-relaxation techniques. Phys Ther. 1996;76(2):182-186.
Download Summary

Studies: Burn

Gamage T, Haynes L. The use of static progressive stretch on the burn joint contracture: Podium Presentation, American Burn Association Meeting. March 1999.
Download Summary

Clinical & Scientific Articles

Fusaro I, Orsini S, Sforza T, Rotini R, Benedetti MG. The use of braces in the rehabilitation treatment of the post-traumatic elbow. Joints. 2014;2(2):81-86.

Paul R, Chan R. Nonsurgical treatment of elbow stiffness. J Hand Surg. 2013;38(10):2002-2004. doi:10.1016/j.jhsa.2013.06.009.

Everding NG, Maschke SD, Evands PJ. Elbow stiffness: a systematic approach to prevention and treatment. Orthopedic Insights Ceveland Clinic Department of Orthopedics. Summer, 2013.

Chinchalkar SJ, Pearce J, Athwal GS. Static progressive versus three-point elbow extension splinting: a mathematical analysis. J Hand Ther Off J Am Soc Hand Ther. 2009;22(1):37-42; quiz 43. doi:10.1197/j.jht.2008.06.008.

Posttraumatic Contracture of the Elbow, Current Management Issues: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases; Vol 63: Numbers 3 & 4.

Fractures of the Elbow: American Society for Surgery of the Hand, www.handcare.org, ASSH Public Education Committee.

Schultz-Johnson K. Static progressive splinting. J Hand Ther Off J Am Soc Hand Ther. 2002;15(2):163-178.

Fess EE, McCollum M. The influence of splinting on healing tissues. J Hand Ther. 1998; 11(2)157-61.

Cyr LM, Ross RG. How controlled stress affects healing tissues. J Hand Ther Off J Am Soc Hand Ther. 1998;11(2):125-130.PMID: 9602969

Bell-Krotoski JA, Figarola JH: Biomechanics of soft-tissue growth and remodeling with plaster casting.J Hand Ther. 1995;8(2):131-7.PMID: 7550623

Brand PW. Mechanical factors in joint stiffness and tissue growth.J Hand Ther. 1995 Apr-Jun;8(2):91-6.PMID: 7550634

Flowers KR, LaStayo P. Effect of total end-range time on improving passive range of motion. J Hand Ther. 1994:7(3).

LaStayo P., Jaffe R. Assessment and management of shoulder stiffness: a biomechanical approach. J Hand Ther. 1994;7(2):122-130. doi:10.1016/S0894-1130(12)80081-0.

McClure PW, Blackburn LG, Dusold C. The Use of splints in the treatment of joint stiffness: biologic rationale and an algorithm for making clinical Decisions. Phys Ther. 1994; 74:1101-1107.

Frost HM. Skeletal structural adaptations to mechanical usage (SATMU): 4. Mechanical influences on intact fibrous tissues. Anat Rec. 1990;226(4):433-439. doi:10.1002/ar.1092260405.

Akeson W, Amiel D, Abel M, et al. Effects of immobilization on joints. Clin Orthop. 1987; 219:28-37.


Coppard BM, Lohman H. Introduction to Orthotics: A Clinical Reasoning & Problem-Solving Approach. 4e, Introduction to Splinting. 4th ed. Mosby; 2015.

Radomski MV, Trombly Latham CA. Occupational Therapy for Physical Dysfunction. Seventh ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014.

Allen Colby L, Kisner C. Therapeutic Exercise: Foundations and Techniques. Chapter 4: Stretching for Impaired Mobility. 6th Edition. FA Davis Company; 2012

Skirven TM, Osterman AL, Fedorczyk JM, Amadio PC. Rehabilitation of the Hand and Upper Extremity. 6th ed. Elsevier Mosby; 2011.

Wolf SW, Hotchkiss RN, Pederson WC, Kozin SH. Chapter 26: Treatment of The Stiff Elbow. In: Green’s Operative Hand Surgery. 6th ed. Elselvier; 2011.

Sahrmann S, Caldwell C, Khoo-Summers L. Chapter 6: Movement System Syndromes of the Elbow. In: Movement System Impairment Syndromes of the Extremities, Cervical and Thoracic Spines; Considerations for Acute and Long Term Management. 1st ed. Elselvier; 2011.

Recor CJ, Johnson CW. Chapter 35: Hand Therapy. In: Principles of Hand Surgery and Therapy. 2nd ed. Saunders; 2010.

Fess EE, Gettle KS, Phillips CA. Splints Acting on the Wrist and Forearm; Splints Acting on the Elbow and Shoulder; Exercise and Splinting for Specific Upper Extremity Problems. In: Hand and Upper Extremity Splinting; Principles and Methods. 3rd ed. Mosby; 2005.

Byers M, Bonutti P. Chapter 11: Frozen Shoulder. In: Physical Therapy of the Shoulder. 4th ed. Elselvier; 2004.

Donatelli R. Chapter 14: Manual Therapy Techniques. In: Physical Therapy of the Shoulder. 4th ed. Elselvier; 2004.

McKee P, Morgan L. Orthotics in Rehabilitation: Splinting the Hand and Body. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis; 1998.

Wilton JC, Dival TA. Hand Splinting: Principles of Design and Fabrication. London: W.B. Saunders; 1997.

Colditz JC. Chapter 111: Principles of Splinting and Splint Prescription. In: Surgery of the Hand and Upper Extremity. 1st ed. McGrawHill Professional Publishing; 1996:2389-2410.

Scientific Presentations

Evaluation of a 30 – Minute Protocol to Restore Range of Motion Via Stress Relaxation and Static Progressive Stretch In Post Traumatic Elbow Contractures: Scientific Paper Presentation: American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons Meeting, March 2008; Slif D. Ulrich, MD, Michael A. Mont, MD, Thorsten M., Seyler, MD, David R. Marker, BS, Bernard F. Morrey, MD, Peter M. Bonutti, MD.

A Prospective Randomized Trial of Static Progressive vs. Dynamic Splinting in the Nonoperative and Postoperative Treatment of Posttraumatic Elbow Stiffness: Scientific Presentation 55 at Annual Meeting of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand, Sept 2007. Anneluuk Lindenhovius, MSc, David Ring, MD, Job Doornberg PhD, Chaitayna Mudgal, MD, Jesse Jupiter J. MD

Restoring Wrist Flexion/Extension Using Principles of Stress Relaxation/Static Progressive Stretch: Scientific Paper Presentation: Scientific Paper Presentation: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Meeting, February 2003; Peter M. Bonutti, MD, Effingham, IL; Michael Hotz, PT, Effingham, IL; Frank Lee, MD, Effingham, IL
Download Summary

Evaluation of a 30-Minute Protocol to Restore Range of Motion Via Stress Relaxation and Static Progressive Stretch: Scientific Paper Presentation: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Meeting, February 2003; Peter Bonutti, MD, Effingham, IL; Robert Donatelli, PhD, Atlanta, GA; and Michael W. Hotz, PT, Effingham, IL

Using Static Progressive Stretch and Stress Relaxation in the Treatment of Glenohumeral Joint Adhesive Capsulitis: Poster Presentation: Orthopaedic Research Society Meting, March 2000 - Podium Presentation: American Physical Therapy Association, Combined Sections Meeting, February 2001; Robert Donatelli, PhD, PT; Michael W. Hotz, PT; and Peter Bonutti, MD

The Use of Static Progressive Stretch on the Burn Joint Contracture: Podium Presentation: American Burn Association Meeting March 1999; Tracy Gamage, PT and Lisa Haynes, OTR, University Hospital, Colorado
Download Summary

Joint Contracture Rehabilitation and Static Progressive Stretch: Scientific Exhibit: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Meeting, March 1998; Peter Bonutti, MD; Mike Hotz, PT; Timothy Gray, MD; Matthew Cremens, BS; Chris Leo, BS; and Mollie Beyers, PT

Trade Publications

Adjunctive Therapy Devices: Restoring ROM Outside of the Clinic: Physical Therapy Products: March 1995; Evelyn J. Cohen, OTR/L Summary: This paper discusses various treatment options to restore ROM. It reviews the principles associated with CPM, SPS and dynamic splinting. The information presented allows educates the clinician so they understand their options when choosing a treatment modality for their patient.

Clinical Management of Soft Tissue Stiffness and Loss of Joint Motion: Inside Case Management: June 2001; Michael W. Hotz, PT

Facilitating End Range of Motion: Advance for Occupational Therapy Practioners: October 2006; Hemant Pal

Splints for All Seasons: Trade Publication: Advance: March 2000; Pat Baxter, MS, OTR/L, CHT